What are the types of car front suspension

Car suspension is an important part to ensure ride comfort. At the same time, as a force-transmitting component connecting the frame (or body) and the axle (or wheel), the automobile suspension is also an important part to ensure the safety of the car. The automobile suspension consists of three parts: elastic elements, shock absorbers and force transmission devices, which play the roles of buffering, damping and force transmission respectively.

SADW (1)

Front suspension, as the name suggests, refers to the form of the car's front suspension.Generally speaking, the front suspension of passenger cars is mostly independent suspension, generally in the form of McPherson, multi-link, double wishbone or double wishbone.

MacPherson is one of the most popular independent suspensions and is usually used on the front wheels of a car. Simply put, the main structure of the MacPherson suspension consists of coil springs and shock absorbers. The shock absorber can avoid the front, rear, left and right deflection of the coil spring when it is stressed, and limit the up and down vibration of the spring. The hardness and performance of the suspension can be set by the stroke length and tightness of the shock absorber.

The advantage of the McPherson suspension is that the driving comfort performance is satisfactory, and the structure is small and exquisite, which can effectively expand the seating space in the car. However, due to its straight-line structure, it lacks the blocking force for impact in the left and right directions, and the anti-brake nodding effect is poor.

SADW (2)

Multi-link suspension is a relatively advanced suspension, including four-link, five-link and so on. The suspension's shock absorbers and coil springs do not rotate along the steering knuckle like MacPherson suspensions; the contact angle of the wheels with the ground can be more precisely controlled, giving the car good handling stability and reducing tire wear.

However, the multi-link suspension uses many parts, takes up a lot of space, has a complex structure, and is expensive. Due to cost and space considerations, it is rarely used by small and medium-sized cars.

Double wishbone:
Double-wishbone suspension is also called double-arm independent suspension. The double wishbone suspension has two upper and lower wishbones, and the lateral force is absorbed by both wishbones at the same time. The pillar only bears the weight of the vehicle body, so the lateral stiffness is large. The upper and lower A-shaped wishbones of the double-wishbone suspension can accurately position various parameters of the front wheels. When the front wheel is cornering, the upper and lower wishbone can simultaneously absorb the lateral force on the tire. In addition, the transverse stiffness of the wishbone is relatively large, so the steering roller is small.

Compared with the McPherson suspension, the double wishbone has an additional upper rocker arm, which not only needs to occupy a larger space, but also makes it difficult to determine its positioning parameters. Therefore, due to space and cost considerations, this suspension is generally not used on the front axle of small cars. But it has the advantages of small rolling, adjustable parameters, large tire contact area, and excellent grip performance. Therefore, the front suspension of most pure blood sports cars adopts double wishbone suspension. It can be said that the double-wishbone suspension is a sports suspension. Supercars such as Ferrari and Maserati and F1 racing cars all use double-wishbone front suspension.

Double wishbone:
Double wishbone suspension and double wishbone suspension have a lot in common, but the structure is simpler than double wishbone suspension, which can also be called a simplified version of double wishbone suspension. Like the double-wishbone suspension, the lateral stiffness of the double-wishbone suspension is relatively large, and the upper and lower rocker arms are generally used. However, the upper and lower arms of some double wishbones cannot play a longitudinal guiding role, and additional tie rods are needed for guiding. Compared with the double wishbone, the simpler structure of the double wishbone suspension is between the McPherson suspension and the double wishbone suspension. It has good sports performance and is generally used in Class A or Class B family cars.
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Post time: Apr-23-2023